RACE 21 1. RACE The question of the determination of race or community arises in the identification of unknown or unclaimed dead bodies found in railway car- riages, or lying in streets, roads, and fields in the vicinity of villages, or recovered from wells, tanks, canals and rivers. This question also arises in seaport towns, where there is always a conglomeration of races and communities. The two important communities of Hindus and Mahomedans in India can be recognized by noting the following chief points ; — Hindu Males. Mahomedan Males. 1. Not circumcised. 2. Sacred thread worn over left shoulder in high castes, dwija or twice-born. 3. Necklace of wooden beads (Tulsi or Eudraksh) round the neck. 4 Marks on the forehead painted red, yellow (safrron coloured) or white (sandal wood), indicating different religious sects. i 5. Tuft of hair usually grown longer on i middle of back of head below the crown. 6. Angar&kha, or Mirzai when worn, leaves an opening, about 5" or 6" X 1", along the rigfyt side of chest showing a brown sun-burnt mark, as nothing else is worn next to skin, •especially among villagers. 7. Bar lobules usually pierced, 8. Palms and fingers not stained with 1. Circumcised. N.B,—Jews are also circumcised. 2. No such sacred thread. 3. No such necklace. 4. No such marks; but callosities on the centre of forehead, patella, tuberosity of left tibia and tip of left lateral (ex- ternal) malleolus owing to special attitudes adopted during prayers. 5. No such tuft of hair. Head clean shaved, especially among BoJiras. N.B.—I saw a Mahomedan male having a tuft of hair on his head. On inquiry he said that he kept it in imitation of his Hindu friends living near his house in his village (vide Fig. 1). 6. Similar sun-burnt mark on left side of chest on account of the Anga- « rakha or Mirzai opening on that side. 7. Ear lobules not pierced, but left lobule may be pierced in a few cases. 8. Palm of left hand and tip of little I ^ finger sometimes stained with henna. Hindu Females. Mahomedan Females. 1. Tattoo-marks between eyebrows, below crease of elbow, on dorsum of hand, and on chest, especially among low castes. 2. Nose-ring aperture in left nostril; in a few eases in septum as welL 3. A few openings along helix ior ear- rings. 4. Vermilion painted in hair parting on bead and red mark on centre of fore- head in women having husbands alive. 5. Iron-wristlet worn on left wrist in Bengal and ivory churis in Bombay and several glass bangles in UP. HJS.—These are only worn by women whose husbands are alive. 6. Head shaved among high class (Brah- min) widows, 7. Toes wide apart as usually no shoes are worn, but silver ornaments called Bichhawas are carried on the toes, especially among village women. 8. Trousers not worn except by Punjabi 1. No tatrtoo-marks except among prose- lytized women. 2. Hose-ring aperture in septum only. 3. Several openings along helix for ear- rings. 4. No such paint. 5. No iron wristlet or chuns worn but very few glass bangles. 6. No shaving of head. 7. Shoe marks probably with toes. 8. Trousers worn.